Hello there guest. Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! The Kritocratic Republic of PanariaEtymology: The name Panaria is derived from the proto-Panarian words "Pan" meaning "all" and Aria being a rough translation of "Land of the Arians", an Arian being one who practices Arianism; therefore the name means the "Land of all those who practice Arianism". The term Kritocratic is a contraction of Kritos or "Judge" and Kratía or "Rule by", this is due to the Panarian government being structure so the executive and legislative branches of government are part of the judiciary. However, the term republic is invoked as all judges are freely elected from members of the bar. History: Classical Antiquity The first records of humans in modern Panaria after the Bronze Age were dated to the 7th Century BCE. The first set of laws were codified in this period and shortly thereafter in the 6th Century BCE, Judaism entered the area. Initially, it is believed Judaism did not take up too much traction. At this time the proto-Panarians who inhabited the area were loosely related bands of tribes and city-states, the largest being the city of Insubrium (Modern day Arius), the peoples of the area shared a language and a primitive pagan faith. Around the 4th Century BCE, a dispute broke out between Insubrium and the neighboring city-state of Calminate over the tribal lands of a tribe called Azinu where Judaism had become the majority religion. The Aazinu were told by the Insubrian King Terilis I the Lawgiver if they accepted the Insubrians as their lords then their rights to practice their Jewish faith would be protected under his laws, something which the Calminians had made abundantly clear they would not do. After the Aazinu took up the King's offer the war was over with relative haste. The King spent the rest of his reign codifying the Insubrian legal code. Legend has it that after the Jewish population had been assimilated that King Terilis the Lawgiver took inspiration from the tradition of Halachic debate and set up a committee in his court to debate the laws, an early form of the Judiciary. The period lasting from the 3rd Century BCE until 1st Century CE is a period of consolidation and centralisation around the city of Insubrium as all other powers in the region began to wane in comparison. Throughout this time, Judaism continued to garner more followers in the region, albeit still slowly. Age of Arius and Christianisation In the year 250CE the population of the region was approximately 35% was Jewish and the 65% the Traditional Pagan faith, the two main groups lived in relative harmony as the legal system set out by Terilis had become popular throughout and became a custom of the proto-Panarians, the legal system also served as a balancing force between the two religious groups. In the year 291CE the first Christian missionaries arrived within Panarian borders, initially they were mostly turned away at the gates of each city, but some luck was had in some Jewish communities in some of the remaining tribal areas on the periphery of the Insubrian hegemony. The year 298CE started with the conversion of Asterius of Perablia to Arianism, an early Christian sect that had been the most successful in Panaria, months later it is said he had a vision of the city of Insubrium ruling over all of Panaria in a benevolent and lasting peace and acting as a bulwark of True Christianity against heathens and heretics. Asterius visited the court of King Damion II the Pious, upon Damion hearing of Asterius' dream was immediately baptised and ordered all his relatives and courtiers do the same. After his conversion, Damion went to war using the flimsy notion of Asterius' dream as justification. During this series of wars, Damion was killed when he was thrown from his horse after it was struck with an arrow. His son, Terilis VI Ironside would continue his father's conquest of Panaria. By 324CE, the population of the Insubrian realm was majority Arian with Judaism falling out of favour, remaining the smallest religious group. The First Ecclesiastical Council of 325 would declare Arianism a heresy from Orthodox Christianity, this result angered many within the Panarian nobility and so the city of Insubrium changed its name to Arius, the founder of the Arian sect. Months later the realm would be named the Kingdom of Panaria. Medieval Period The 6th Century began with a succession crisis when King Gali I died without leaving a clear heir to the throne. The leading contenders were his two nephews, Odacer and Pantilamon, both sons of Gali's deceased brother. Odacer, the elder brother, was a general in his Uncle's army and was leading a garrison on the western border when he heard of his Uncle's death, he immediately abandoned the garrison and marched on Arius where Pantilamon resided. Upon Odacer's arrival at Arius, Pantilamon sallied forth from within the walls to discuss the situation with his brother. Pantilamon proposed that he would renounce his claim to the throne and support Odacer's ascension if he was made the head of the judiciary. Odacer jumped at the chance. At this time the Judiciary was mostly inconsequential, it dealt with trivial cases of breaches of the law such as theft or common assault with more serious crimes being tried in the court of the King. The main responsibility of the Judiciary was to update the legal codes when new laws were passed or old ones repealed. Odacer may have been a successful general and brilliant tactician but his diplomatic and administrative skills were comparatively poor, throughout his reign he would pass more and more responsibility for the internal administration of the realm to his brother and the Judiciary. For the next five centuries, Kings would incrementally bestow more power and responsibility to the Judiciary in all aspects of administration and diplomacy eventually culminating in a large scale civil dispute between two factions, the Legalists, led by the Head of the Judiciary, Gaius Iponus, and the Monarchists, led by King Damion III. Damion attempted to reclaim some of the power lost over the last few centuries, namely the ability to set tax rates as he wished to fund a religious war against heretic neighbors. This attempt to reclaim power for the throne was met with harsh opposition. The full-scale conflict began when a tax collector appointed by the king was assaulted and killed by soldiers of a feudal Lord who recognised the Judiciary, not the King, as the ones able to tax the peasants in his holdings. King Damion sent in the royal guard in an attempt to extort the taxes from the feudal Lord, in response Iponus hired and deployed mercenaries to fight off the King's men. The conflict would rage for three years, claiming the lives of 5% of the population, including two of the King's sons. The end result was the signing of the "Lura et Legis" or "Rights of Law" establishing a fixed constitution and raised the Judiciary to almost the equal of the Monarch. It also made the Feudal Lords below the King settle disputes in court rather than the battlefield which resulted in a population and economic boom which lasted right the way through until the Renaissance. The Renaissance and the Rise of Kritarchy The Panarian renaissance begins in the year 1450 with the Death of King Odacer III and his son Leonias ascends to the throne, Leonias' first act as King was to seize the head position of the Judiciary, a move that terrified the noble lords and peasants alike; they were further shocked to learn that the Judiciary didn't challenge the King in this move. What the Lords didn't know was that before his father's death Leonias had struck a deal with the current members of the Judiciary was that they would make him the head of the Judiciary and he would dissolve the monarchy and reduce the power of the nobility in the process. On the 18th July 1452, 6 months to the day after Leonias' coronation and 4 months after his seizure of the Head position of the Judiciary, he published an edict stating the position of monarch was dissolved and that the rule of law as dictated by the judiciary was the new form of governance, he declared himself Attorney General of Panaria, a position which was to be held for life and upon death of the incumbent was to be passed on through a meritocratic system. The removal of the hereditary monarch position greatly angered Leonias' family members, on the 20th of November 1453, Leonias' first cousin Gali assassinated him at the Judicial Palace in Arius. In retaliation, Leonias' successor Attorney General Gaius Malvinus had Gali arrested and executed and all his family lands seized and sold. In the investigation following Leonias' murder, other relatives of Leonias became implicated in the scheme and were either imprisoned, stripped of titles, fined into poverty or a combination of these in a series of trials known as the Exile of Insubrium as both Leonias and Gali, and by extension their relatives, could trace their lineage through a line of unbroken Kings back to the King Terilis I of Insubrium so this en-masse title revocation of their family served to almost eliminate their dynasty from any position of power. The Enlightenment and the Onset of Kritocracy Once the values and principles of the Enlightenment spread to the shores of Panaria, it quickly took hold in the universities and academies of the nation. The intelligentsia began to produce some of the greatest works of philosophy, music, academia, modern theology and many other areas, unprecedented in that part of the world. With this increase in the exchange of intellectual wealth with the rest of the world, some new ideologies entered the mindset of the Panarian Intellectual; the most notable being the concept of Liberal Democracy. This ideology was initially treated as dangerous and hostile to the Panarian way of life by the government but eventually, opinions softened. Between the 1780s and the 1850s numerous reforms would be enacted to peacefully transition from a meritocratic system of election to a democratic one. More emphasis was put on education for the general population in this period and as a result, the number of members of the Bar rapidly grew. Furthermore, this period was when the structure of Panarian government was set in stone and still remains to this day. Women were not granted the right to vote until 1901. Politics Political Structure The structure of the government is in a series of courts with the Supreme Court acting as the highest body of the government, within it is vested supreme executive and legislative power at a federal level. Each state then has its own High court subservient to the Supreme court but maintains legislative power within its own state. Each state is split into districts which each have a District Court to deal with more local matters. Cities, large towns and other significant settlements have councils that serve to deal with trivial legal matters such as minor misdemeanors or small interpersonal claims. Most Honourable and Infalialbe Supreme Court of Law of Panaria Attorney General ---- Head of State Supreme Judge ---- Head of Governing Body Chief Administrator x5 The legislation is passed and legal matters are decided by votes from the Chief Administrators and the Supreme Judge, deadlocks are broken by the Attorney General. Abstention is not allowed. Most High and Honorable Court of Law of the State of ---- High Judge Deputy High Judge Grand Administrators x5 The legislation is passed and legal matters are decided by votes from the Grand Administrators and the Deputy High Judge, deadlocks are broken by the High Judge. Abstention is allowed. Most Honorable Court of Law of the District of ---- District Judge Magistrate Judge Administrators x3 The legal matters are decided by votes from the Administrators and the Magistrate Judge, deadlocks are broken by the District Judge. Abstention is allowed. Council of ---- Grand Councilor High Councilor Councilor Each council varies in composition, small councils will have no Grand Councilor, one High Councilor and four Councilors. A standard Council is called a 1-2-3 and Consists of 1 Grand Councilor, 2 High Councilors and 3-5 Councilors. Larger councils for cities have often 1-2 Grand Councilors, 3-5 Grand Councilors and up to 10 Councilors. The City Assembly of Arius is covered by a large council presided over by a Magistrate Judge. Hello there guest. Please Register or Log in to view the hidden image! Policies and Stances Abortion: Legal, de facto on demand up to 24 weeks. Age of Consent: 16 years of age Age of Majority: 18 years of age Anti-Discrimination Laws: Panarian Law prohibits the discrimination against persons on the basis of gender identity, sexual orientation, religion or lack thereof, national origins, race, ethnicity, age, economic status, social status, or physical limitations. Assisted Suicide:Legal, requires signatures of two doctors from different practices. Must be carried out in a registered hospital. Birth Control: Provided for free by the Health Service for individuals under 25 years of age. Childcare: Daycare provided free of charge for children too young to attend school if all parents are fully employed (working for pay for 25 hours or more per week). Concealed Carry of Firearms: Yes, with a permit. Death Penalty: Only in times of war for treason, must be tried in the Supreme Court. Divorce: Legal, expedited. Double Jeopardy: Only allowed if an appeal combined with new evidence is submitted to a higher court than the one it was previously tried in and the higher court believes the new evidence for case is meritorious. Drinking Age: 17 Driving Age: 16 Drug Laws: Possession of Cannabis for Personal use is decriminalized, although still illegal. Treatment programs are preferred over custodial sentences for possession of other controlled substances. Production, distribution and transportation of all controlled substances is targeted. Education: Free for all citizens and permanent residents at the primary and secondary levels. Also, the state provides financial aid to university students in the forms of scholarships and low-interest loans. Eminent Domain: Legal for public purposes with fair compensation for property owners as determined by the courts, usually through a panel of expert witnesses. Equal Pay for Equal Work: Yes, mandated. Felony Disenfranchisement: Illegal Flag Desecration: Legal and protected as an act of free speech. Freedom of Organisation: Legal. Freedom Assembly: Legal Freedom of the Press: Free Market Press and State-owned press both exist. State-owned enterprises attempt to be impartial. Freedom of Movement: Legal. Visas required for foreign visitors unless stipulated by treaty. Freedom of and from Religion: Legal, protected right. Freedom of Speech: Legal, highest protected right. Gambling Age: 18 years. Gender Laws: Panaria recognizes two biological genders for the purpose of legal documents, Male and Female, however all documents stipulate to the term being strictly biological. It is possible to abstain a certificate stating a change in gender which allows an individual to specify their biological gender as the opposite to the one they were born with. Gun Laws: 18 year-olds may apply for a firearms licence which includes a medical and background checks as well as having attended a gun safety course. This process is three-tiered. Human Cloning: Illegal for any cloned embryo to be carried to term. Early stage experiments are allowed. In Vitro Fertilization: Legal, can be obtained on the Healthcare Service in certain scenarios. Marriageable Age: 18 years. 16 years with parental consent. Military Conscription: No. Minimum Wage: Yes. Parental Leave: Yes, paid parental leave for both mothers and fathers preceding and after the birth of a child or children. The parents themselves choose how they wish to split the 32 weeks of paid leave that they collectively receive. The state incurs the losses that businesses suffer as a result of this policy. Polygamy/Polyandry/Group Marriage: Illegal Pornography: Legal for persons over the age of 18. Prostitution: Legal, all parties involved must be over the age of 18. Advertising the practice is illegal. Brothels must be registered and have nondescript shopfronts. Race: Racial discrimination is prohibited in all areas of life. Reproductive Rights: Women's reproductive rights include the following: freedom from coerced sterilization and contraception; the right to access good-quality reproductive healthcare; and the right to education and access in order to make free and informed reproductive choices. Sanitary products are distributed to women and girls receiving welfare. Same-sex Marriage: Legal, equal to Heterosexual marriage. Sex Reassignment Surgery: Legal. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Anyone who knowingly carries such an infection is required to disclose that information to any potential sexual partners; otherwise, consent by that partner to participate in sexual activity is considered invalid, and the carrier of the infection can be charged with sexual assault; All STI and HIV/AIDS Medication is covered by Healthcare services. Smoking Age: 17. State Religion: None, secular. Stem Cell Research: Legal. Trial by Jury: Yes. Torture: Illegal. Universal Healthcare: Government-run, state-funded healthcare, free for all citizens and permanent residents. It is also free for foreign visitors in the event they were injured during the perpetration of a crime by a Panarian citizen in Panaria. Voting age: 16 for State Elections and below. 17 for Federal election. Women's Rights: Discrimination based on gender identity is prohibited. Working Age: 18 years for full time work. 16 years for work up to 28 hours a week. 14 up to 12 hours a week. Working Week: 40 hours for wage laborers with overtime work allowed, overtime pay must be 155% of their standard wage or greater. .